Influence of the Last Occupations of the Unemployed on Gender Inequality: Evidence from Spain, Switzerland and the European Union

Marina Fad’oš, Mária Bohdalová


Our paper aims to describe how gender inequality depends on the previous professions of
the unemployed in Spain, Switzerland and the European Union. We rejected the hypothesis
of hysteresis using the LM test for univariate series and the ILT test for panel data series only
in the presence of one or two structural breaks, whose temporary impact has been proven
using Half-life estimators. Cross-dependence has been proven using the Pesaran CD test on
gender inequality in the occupations of the unemployed in Spain and the European Union,
and has been rejected for Switzerland. It has been found that the disadvantage of one gender
in the inequality between men and women in unemployment depends on the previous
employment of the unemployed and that in all analysed territories there are some typical
professions for each sex. The levels of inequality were lower when men were at a disadvantage.

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